What if a nuclear war broke out, all you need to know

Posted: March 23, 2014 in China, Europe, USA
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Worsening crises
Consider, for example, people started hearing about Iran and its nuclear reactors, after Iraq was conquered. First, it was just rumors…then progressed to newletter stories, internet writings, and other media outlets. The U.S. Government began to announce that the next foe and threat was Iran. They had to stop their nuclear program. They could convert nuclear reactors used for generating power, electricity, to harvesting the element(s) necessary for making nuclear bombs.

Then, we started hearing about America either attacking Iran and the rhetoric that justifies such an action; or, Israel, America’s ally, doing the deed. The above sets the stage for a “Crisis.”

Coming forward in time to the present, recently certain sources said Putin, the Russian Premier, was in flight to South America, Brazil. In mid-flight, he had the plane change course and head for America. He went promptly to where President Bush was and they had a meeting. White House sources, many, heard Putin screaming at Bush:

“We have Russian technicians working on nuclear power plants in Iran. If you attack those plants, our people will be killed.” Remember! He screamed this at Bush.

“We will nuke your cities!”

This is a Worsening Crisis. Notice how it is generated from rumors first; then media stories, and finally the White House announcing we have a problem with Iran and their building nuclear power plants. Stories continued that if Iran persists in this action, they will be attacked and destroyed by either the U.S. or Israeli forces, or both.

Nuclear Explosion

A nuclear explosion will occur as follows. Just knowing this can save your life! The howling wind and overpressures are devastatingly frightening…and deadly.

Living things within ground zero can be turned to carbon and vaporized instantly as the flash intensifies and wanes within seconds.

First, The Explosion.

Simultaneously, a fireball is emitted from the nuclear furnance being generated by the explosion. The flash is generated by the fireball instantly. This immediately releases deadly radiation in the form of intense light and thermal radiation. The fireball radiates infrared light, ultraviolet light, and visible light. At near distances, the light can cause things that are flammable, including people, to burst into flames. The flash energy can range from a fraction of a second to a minute depending upon the tonnage of the weapon. Burst height and the explosion energy.

“The intense heat will burn exposed personnel at great distances from ground zero, even where the effects of blast and initial nuclear radiation are insignificant. The degree of injury from thermal radiation increases with the size of the weapon, but can be mitigated by weather and terrain. Thermal radiation is primarily a line-of-sight phenomena, so terrain masking can help reduce its effects.”—Effects of Nuclear Weapons, olive-drab.com.

Your immediate concern is to protect yourself from the thermal (heat) radiation that is traveling at the speed of light. Concurrently with this is light.

The brilliant flash of light can burn out the retinas of the eyes if looked at. The thermal pulses can burn flesh and set flammables on fire. Thus, if you see a brilliant flash of light — maybe 25 miles away, immediately turn away from it.

White clothes reflect light and this can protect and/or reduce flash burns where thermal radiation is a hazard. As a crisis worsens, and you work outdoors, wear white shirts and pants, hat and gloves. Or have the gloves on your person to quickly retrieve and put on as you dart for cover.

The intense flash and thermal radiation is of such intensity, if one is next to a concrete wall or some other rivetment, as shown in the video of Hiroshima, as they are instantly vaporized, the speed of light burns their shadow into the wall.
The Blast comes next. The mechanics of such is that as the explosion expands outward, instantly air is compressed and moves likewise under terrific force. This is the shock wave moving through space initially at ten times the speed of sound. That is 7,939.0 miles per hour to 8,000 miles per hour losing speed and energy as it travels outward from the blast center in the atmosphere. This, of course, varies according to the tonnage, of the bomb’s rating the the burst height and energy. One can see why, if caught in such an event, objects would be blown apart, crushed, mangled, bent and twisted, collapsed, and rolled over.

The shock wave of the blast event separates from the fireball as it expands, traveling initially much faster than sound, slowing to the normal speed. The arrival of the blast wave creates such an overpressure (greater than normal atmospheric pressure) with excessive winds moving outward that a partial vaccum is created. When this passes, stay put!

For the outward winds will soon rush back in to fill the partial vaccum, creating more havoc and damage. The incoming winds will be several times hurricane force approaching 200 miles per hour. This is still dependent upon the tonnage of the original blast, energy and height of the explosion. The blast wave is the noise of the explosion. Until the nuclear explosion blast wave arrives where you are, there is little to no explosion noise and wind sound through the atmosphere.
This is why the flash caught so many off guard. It was silent. No thunderous, frightening sounds, and as they watched it, then got very hot as the flash effects arrived in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Many burst into flames. Many vaporized just then. Many with concrete or metal walls behind them left their shadows impregnated forever on those objects that were not blown apart, as they suddenly disappeared. “Temperatures directly below the fireball was 4,000 Celsius. The heat rays left shadows. Ladders, railings, even people left their outline on stone and metal” who were close to the fireball at Hiroshima. “Anyone left in the open was vaporized or turned to carbon in an instant.”

Fallout: After the initial radiation (prompt radiation) in the first few seconds, neutrons and gamma rays, are released from the detonation. As the neutrons travel outward from the burst through the air, they collide with molecules in the air and may produce secondary gamma rays. The radioactive byproducts of the exploding bomb, known as residual radiation, produces ionizing radiation including alpha and beta rays. These radioactive decay products starts immediately after the detonation generating alpha and beta rays and more gamma rays. They combined with the pulverized material sucked up into the cloud and come down later as fallout.

Fallout would start within a few hours of a surface- or near-surface burst. After the blast wave and return wave passes, and your fallout meter (radiation meter) says it is safe outside, you may venture so to make necessary repairs to your shelter or move to better shelter, if possible.
The energy of a nuclear explosion is released in the form of a blast wave, thermal radiation (heat) and nuclear radiation. The distribution of energy in these three forms depends on the yield of the weapon. For nuclear weapons in the kiloton range, the energy is divided in various forms, roughly as 50% blast, 35% thermal and 15% nuclear radiation. Each one of these forms causes devastation on a scale that is unimaginable. Below these effects are discussed separately for a 15 kiloton bomb, which was the explosive power of the bomb detonated by the U.S. in Hiroshima during World War II. This is also the size of the weapons now possessed by India, Pakistan, North Korea and would likely be roughly the size weapon created by terrorists.
Effects of Nuclear Weapons Detonations

Because of the tremendous amount of energy released in a nuclear detonation, temper­atures of tens of millions of degrees C develop in the immediate area of a nuclear detonation (contrast this with the few thousand degrees of a conventional explosion). This compares with the tempera­ture inside the core of the Sun. At these temperatures, every thing near ground-zero vaporizes (from a few hundred meters in 15 kiloton weapons to more than a kilometer in multimegaton weapons). The remaining gases of the weapon, surrounding air and other material form a fireball.

The fireball begins to grow rapidly and rise like a balloon. As the fireball rises and subsequently expands as it cools, it gives the appearance of the familiar mushroom cloud. The vaporized debris, contaminated by radioactivity, falls over a vast area after the explosion subsides – creating a radioactive deadly fallout with long-term effects.

What are blast effects?
Because of the very high temperatures and pressures at ground zero, the gaseous residues of the explosion move outward. The effect of these high pressures is to create a blast wave traveling several times faster than sound. A 15 kiloton weapon creates pressure created in excess of 10 Psi (pounds per square inch) with wind speeds in excess of 800 km per hour up to about a 1.2 km radius. Most buildings are demolished and there will be almost no survivors (much larger strategic nuclear weapons will greatly extend this radius of destruction).

Beyond this distance, and up to about 2.5 km the pressure gradually drops to 3 Psi and the wind speed comes down to about 150 km per hour as in a severe cyclonic storm. There will be injuries on a large scale and some fatalities. Beyond this zone of fatalities, the pressure drops to less than 1 Psi, enough to shatter windows and cause serious injuries. It is the high speed combined with high pressures which causes the most mechanical damage in a nuclear explosion. Human beings are quite resistant to pressure, but cannot withstand being thrown against hard objects nor to buildings falling upon them.

Blast effects are most carefully considered by military warplanners bent upon destroying specific targets. However, it is the thermal effects which hold the greatest potential for environmental damage and human destruction. This is because nuclear firestorms in urban areas can create millions of tons of smoke which will rise into the stratosphere and create massive global cooling by blocking sunlight. In any nuclear conflict, it is likely that this environmental catastrophe will cause more fatalities than would the initial immediate local effects of the nuclear detonation.

What are thermal effects?
The surface of the fireball also emits large amounts of infrared, visible and ultraviolet rays in the first few seconds. This thermal radiation travels outward at the speed of light. As a result this is by far the most widespread of all the effects in a nuclear explosion and occurs even at distances where blast effects are minimal.

The range of thermal effects increases markedly with weapon yield (thermal radiation decays only as the inverse square of the distance from the detonation). Large nuclear weapons (in the megaton class and above) can start fires and do other thermal damage at distances far beyond the distance at which they can cause blast damage.

Even with a 15 kiloton detonation, the intensity of the thermal radiation can exceed 1000 Watts per square cm. This is similar to getting burnt by an acetylene torch used for welding metals. For a 15 kiloton bomb, almost everyone within 2 km will suffer third degree burns (which damage the skin and tissues below it); for 550 kiloton bomb, third degree burns occur in a radius up to 9 km. There will be almost no survivors since no immediate medical attention will be available.
Actually, the intense heat from the flash, if one is caught outdoors and doesn’t turn, duck and go for immediate cover (ditch, culvert, or just curl into a ball and protect head and eyes away from the flash), this intense heat from the flash can cause the water and blood to boil so rapidly one could explode as does concrete under the same conditions. The skin will definitely literally melt off the body as the body burns from incineration instantly if one is close to ground zero.

The blast wave will cause lungs to collapse, eardrums to rupture, will hurl debris and people some distances, and have a crushing effect on objects and people.

When studying the effects of a single weapon, it is important to remember that thousands of U.S. and Russian nuclear weapons with yields 8 to 50 times larger than 15 kilotons remain on high-alert, quick-launch status. In a U.S.-Russian nuclear war, these scenarios would occur thousands of times over in virtually every major city in the U.S., Russia, and NATO member states (and probably in China).

It is the cumulative effects of these firestorms – the creation of a stratospheric smoke layer resulting in deadly global climate change – which ultimately become the primary environmental consequence of nuclear war which threatens the continued human existence.
What are radiation effects?
There basically are two kinds of ionizing radiation created by nuclear explosions, electromagnetic and particulate. Radiation emitted at the time of detonation is known as prompt or initial radiation, and it occurs within the first minute of detonation. Anyone close enough to the detonation to be killed by prompt radiation is likely to be killed by blast and thermal effects, so most concerns about the health effects of radiation focus upon the residual or delayed radiation, which is caused by the decay of radioactive isotopes and is commonly known as radioactive fallout.

If the fireball of the nuclear detonation touches the surface of the Earth, large amounts of soil, water, etc. will be vaporized and drawn up into the radioactive cloud. This material then also becomes highly radioactive; the smaller particles will rise into the stratosphere and be distributed globally while the larger particles will settle to Earth within about 24 hours as local fallout. Lethal levels of fallout can extend many hundreds of kilometers and miles from the blast area. Contaminated areas can remain uninhabitable for tens or hundreds of years.

Radiation injury has a long-term effect on survivors. Reactive chemicals released by ionization cause damage to DNA and disrupt cells by producing immediate effects on metabolic and replication processes. While cells can repair a great deal of the genetic damage, that takes time, and repeated injuries make it that much more difficult. Imme­diate treatment requires continual replacement of blood so that the damaged blood cells are replaced, and treatment of bone marrow and lymphatic tissues which are amongst the most sensitive to radiation. One must remember in this context that there are very few hospitals equipped to carry out such remedial procedures.

Radiation injury is measured in a unit called rem. Some authorities consider 5 rem/year tolerable for workers who are occupationally exposed to radiation —a typi­cal value for exposure to medical X-rays is 0.08 rem. 1.5 rem/year is considered tolerable for pregnant women. It should be remembered that natural radiation is always present in the atmosphere over most places on the earth, but at lower levels. However, there is no threshold, universally agreed upon, at which a dose of radiation can be declared safe.

Things which get irradiated by “prompt” radiation themselves become radioactive. People in the area of a nuclear explosion, and those subject to radioactive fallout stand more risk of contracting cancer. A 1000 rem exposure for the whole body over a lifetime (which is entirely possible for those surviving a nuclear war) brings about an 80% chance of contracting cancer.

Cancer from radiation exposure will occur over the entire lifetime of exposed populations. For example, only one-half of the predicted numbers of cancer have occurred in the people exposed to the radiation produced by the atmospheric weapons tests and the explosions of the US atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki that took place 50 to 60 years ago.

We have no idea what the long-term genetic consequences will be from the massive release of radioactive fallout on a world-wide basis.
What are electromagnetic effects (Electromagnetic Pulse or EMP)?

Ionizing radiation from the fireball produces intense currents and electromagnetic fields, usually referred to as the electromagnetic pulse (EMP). This pulse is felt over very large distances. A single high-yield nuclear detonation will create destructive EMP over hundreds of thousands of square kilometers beneath where the explosion occurs.

EMP from high-yield nuclear detonations will subject electrical grids to voltage surges far exceeding those caused by lightning. Modern VLSI chips and microprocessors, present in most communication equipment. TVs, radios, computers and other electronic equipment are extremely sensitive to these surges and immediately get burnt out. Thus all possible communication links to the outside world are cut off. Restoring these facilities will be an arduous (and expensive) task assuming that the infrastructure required to complete this task would still exist following a nuclear war.

Warplanners consider the EMP from the detonation of a high-yield warhead as capable of disrupting the entire communication system of their nation, and in this way a single missile launch could begin a nuclear war.
What are the effects on climate?

Massive absorption of warming sunlight by a global smoke layer would cause Ice Age temperatures on Earth. NASA computer models predict 40% of the smoke would stay in the stratosphere for 10 years. There the smoke would also destroy much of the protective ozone layer and allow dangerous amounts of UV light to reach the Earth’s surface.

Half of 1% of the explosive power of the deployed nuclear arsenal can create nuclear darkness. 100 Hiroshima-size weapons exploded in the large cities of India and Pakistan would put 5 million tons of smoke in the stratosphere and drop average global temperatures to Little Ice Age levels. Shortened growing seasons could cause up to 1 billion people to starve to death.

A large nuclear war could put 150 million tons of smoke in the stratosphere and make global temperatures colder than they were 18,000 years ago during the coldest part of the last Ice Age. Killing frosts would occur every day for 1-3 years in the large agricultural regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Average global precipitation would be reduced by 45%. Earth’s ozone layer would be decimated. Growing seasons would be eliminated.

A large nuclear war would utterly devastate the environment and cause most people to starve to death. Already stressed ecosystems would collapse. Deadly climate change, radioactive fallout and toxic pollution would cause a mass extinction event, eliminating humans and most complex forms of life on Earth.

The U.S. and Russia keep hundreds of missiles armed with thousands of nuclear warheads on high-alert, 24 hours a day.

They can be launched with only a few minutes warning and reach their targets in less than 30 minutes. We must end this madness.

How would you tell the world is under attack?
After the first initial explosions of the Submarine Launched Ballistic Missiles (SLBMs) Warning signs distant miles from the SLBMs would be:

Thunderous sounds of massive explosions.

Sudden Electric Power Outage and this would couple to….

Most suddenly, communications down! No more telephones, television and radio stations, radios, electric power, unless “hardened.” This is the process where electronics are protected from over-surges.

Civilian Airport runways 7,000 ft long will be prime targets. They would be used to launch our long-range bombers that need the length for takeoff and return landing. The Stealth Bomber may use shorter runways. But they would be targeted too and this would be part of our retalitory force, besides any missiles that got off the ground.

If you live near a military installation, get away during the worsening crisis. It is going to be vaporized shortly! This is to cut down on return strikes against the enemy. American cities would suffer terribly if they are in close proximity to the military bases.
So be warned fellow earthlings,if the worst comes to the worst,here is the rule: Turn away, duck down, and Seek Cover. Shortly after the flash, the Blast Wave will arrive, initially travelling faster than the speed of sound — in 5 seconds, it travels approximately 1 mile. There is a lot of push behind it. Then, the blast waves slows to about 3 % faster than the normal speed of sound in the air.

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