Mega projects that broke the bank

Posted: March 18, 2014 in Asian, China, Europe, USA
Tags: , ,

This is a list of megaprojects, i.e., extremely large-scale investment projects.Megaprojects may be defined as:

Projects that cost more than US$1 billion and attract a lot of public attention because of substantial impacts on communities, environment, and budgets
Projects can also be “initiatives that are physical, very expensive, and public”

Megaprojects require care in the project development process to reduce any possible optimism bias and strategic misrepresentation. Examples of megaprojects include bridges, tunnels, highways, railways, airports, seaports, power plants, dams, wastewater projects, Special Economic Zones (SEZ), oil and natural gas extraction projects, public buildings, information technology systems, aerospace projects, and weapons systems.

This list identifies a wide variety of examples of major historic and contemporary projects that meet one or both megaproject criteria identified above.
Aerospace projects

-Airbus A380, a double-deck, wide-body, four-engine jet airliner manufactured by Airbus, a subsidiary of EADS.
-Antonov An-225 (1988), the longest and heaviest aircraft in the world in service.
-Boeing 2707 and Lockheed L-2000 supersonic aircraft projects, initiated in 1963 via a US government-funded competition to build the United States’ first Supersonic Transport (SST), prototypes never built, ultimately canceled due to political, environmental and economic reasons in 1971.
-Boeing 747, a wide-body commercial airliner first produced in 1970, often referred to by the nickname Jumbo Jet, is among the world’s most recognizable aircraft.
-Boeing 787, made in the United States with local and globally sourced parts, is the first major aircraft to be made largely out of composite materials
-Concorde, a supersonic passenger airliner, a product of an Anglo-French government treaty that combined the manufacturing efforts of Aérospatiale and the British Aircraft Corporation, first flown in 1969, Concorde entered service in 1976 and continued commercial flights for twenty-seven years.
Airport construction

-Istanbul New Airport Istanbul, Turkey Project total – 30 billion
-King Abdulaziz International Airport Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Project total – 7.2 billion
-Abu Dhabi International Airport Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Project total – 6.8 billion
-Al Maktoum International Airport Jebel Ali, UAEProject cost – 32 billion
-New Islamabad International Airport Islamabad, Pakistan Project cost – 1 billion
-Amsterdam Airport Schiphol Amsterdam, Netherlands
-Athens International Airport Athens, Greece Airport cost – 3 billion
-Barcelona International Airport Barcelona, Spain Airport cost – 4 billion
-Berlin-Brandenburg International Airport Berlin, Germany Airport cost – 4 billion
-Denver International Airport Denver, Colorado, United Airport cost – 4.8 billion
-Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport Guangzhou, China Airport cost – 3 billion
-Hong Kong International Airport Chek Lap Kok, Hong Kong Airport cost – 20 billion
-Incheon International Airport Incheon, South Korea Phase 1 – 5 billion
-Kansai International Airport Japan Airport cost – 20 billion
-King Shaka International Airport Durban, South Africa Airport cost – 1 billion
-Kuala Lumpur International Airport Malaysia Airport cost – 3.5 billion
-Manila – Clark International Airport Angeles City, Philippines Project total – 10 billion
-Manila-Sangley International Airport Cavite City, Philippines Project total – 25 billion

Science projects

-Envisat, an Earth observation satellite of European Space Agency (2002–2012)
-European Extremely Large Telescope,
-European x-ray free electron laser, in Germany, plan operating in 2015.
-Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research, in Germany (2012–)
-Human Genome Project, investigation to determine human genetic sequence (1990-Ongoing)
-Human Brain Mapping (2013-ongoing)
-ITER International nuclear fusion project, in France (2008-Ongoing)
-Large Binocular Telescope,
-Manhattan Project, in the United States (1945)
-National Ignition Facility, United States nuclear fusion project (1997-Ongoing)
-Neutrino Factory, (plan)
Square Kilometre Array in Australia and southern Africa
-Superconducting Super Collider, canceled 40 TeV particle accelerator in Texas (1991–1993)
Spaceflight projects

-Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, a $2 billion particle physics experiment module that is mounted on the International Space Station (2011– )
-Apollo program (1960–1975)
-Buran program, canceled space shuttle program (1980–1993)
-Cassini–Huygens, a joint NASA/ESA/ASI spacecraft mission studying the planet Saturn and its many natural satellites since 2004. The total cost of this project is about $ 3.26 billion.
-Compass navigation system, an independent system of satellite navigation by People’s Republic of China (Est. 2015–2017)
-Constellation program, cancelled planned moon landing spacecraft and space shuttle replacement, part lives on as future Crew Escape Vehicle for ISS (2005–2010)
-Gaia (spacecraft), an ESA’s mission to create a 3D map of local Milky Way. ($ 1 billion)
-Galileo (spacecraft), a mission to Jupiter (1989–2003) ($ 1.5 billion as 2003.)
-Galileo Navigation Satellite System, a European Union and European Space Agency global satellite navigation system (Est. 2014)
-Global Positioning System, a global satellite navigation system created by the United States Air Force (1994)
-GLONASS, the Russian equivalent of GPS (1995)
-Herschel Space Observatory, ESA space observatory sensitive to the far infrared and submillimetre bands (€1,1 billion)
-Hubble Space Telescope
-International Space Station, multinational space station in low Earth orbit (1998–2020)
-James Webb Space Telescope (under construction, cost $ 8.8 billion in 2013)
-Juno (spacecraft), a NASA New Frontiers mission to the planet Jupiter (2011– )
-Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer, a planned mission to Jupiter (Est. 2022)
-Kennedy Space Center, The Main Spaceport in the USA.
-Mars Science Laboratory, $ 2.5 billion
-Mir, Russian space station (1986–2001)
-Orion (spacecraft), a planned spacecraft that is being built by Lockheed Martin for NASA
-Planck (spacecraft), an ESA’s mission to observing cosmic microwave background.
-Soviet Moonshot, canceled moon landing program (1962–1969)
-Space Shuttle program (1972–2011)
Rail and rapid transit projects

-Rail Axis Berlin-Palermo, European Union (Germany, Austria, Italy), a high speed corridor consisting of several projects including Brenner Base Tunnel and Strait of Messina Bridge
-Rail Axis Paris-Bratislava, European Union (France, Germany, Austria, Slovakia), a high speed corridor consisting of several projects including Stuttgart 21 and Vienna Main Station
-High speed rail network (China)Cost: $ 32.5 billion
-Interstate Highway System Network (United States)Cost: $114 billion
-Channel Tunnel (Between England and France) (Project Cost – $15.4 billion)
Military Projects

1.) Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II
2.) Ballistic Missile Defense System
3.) The Manhattan Project
4.) The Atlantic Wall
5.) The Great Wall Of China
6.) Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit
7.) Newport News Nimitz-class aircraft carrier
8.) Bell Boeing V-22 Osprey
9.) Austal USA Independence-class
10.) General Dynamics Ohio-Class Submarines
11.)Rockwell B-1 Lancer, a supersonic bomber with a variable-sweep wing built in the 1980s as a strategic bomber. It has since acquired conventional and multi-role capabilities.
13.)Boeing B-29 Superfortress, the first nuclear bomber, which cost 50% more than the development of the bombs in the Manhattan Project.
14.)Boeing B-52 Stratofortress, the longest-running bomber program in the world with decades of service, one of the largest military aircraft ever built.
15.)Eurofighter Typhoon, a twin-engine canard–delta wing multirole aircraft designed and built by a consortium of three separate partner companies — Alenia Aeronautica, BAE Systems, and EADS—working through a holding company, Eurofighter GmbH, that was formed in 1986.
16.)F-22 Raptor, a single seat, twin-engine fifth-generation fighter aircraft manufactured by Lockheed Martin that uses stealth technology.
17.)Rafale, a French twin-engine delta-wing fighter aircraft designed and built by Dassault Aviation. The Rafale is a multirole combat aircraft capable of simultaneously undertaking air supremacy, interdiction, reconnaissance, and the airborne nuclear deterrent missions.
18.)F/A-18 Hornet, a twin-engine supersonic, all-weather carrier-capable multirole fighter jet, designed to intercept air threats and attack ground targets.

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